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How to Make Single Super Phosphate (SSP) fertilizer

The agricultural industry relies on fertilizers to enhance soil fertility and crop yield. Among the many types of fertilizers, Single Super Phosphate (SSP) stands out as a cost-effective and widely used phosphatic fertilizer. The production of SSP is both intriguing and complex, involving a series of chemical reactions and processes. In this blog post, we delve into the manufacturing process of SSP and how it contributes to sustainable agriculture.

What is Single Super Phosphate (SSP)?

Single Super Phosphate, often abbreviated as SSP, is a granulated fertilizer containing 16-20% water-soluble phosphate (P2O5), which is beneficial for plant growth and soil nutrition. It also supplies sulfur and calcium to the soil. SSP is especially popular in rain-fed agricultural areas due to its ability to provide nutrients in a form that is readily available to plants.

phosphate fertilizer production

phosphate fertilizer production

The Manufacturing Process of SSP

The production of SSP involves several key steps, each critical for the quality of the final product. Here’s an overview of the process:

1. Raw Material Preparation

In fact, the SSP production is making fertilizer from rock phosphate, which is mined from phosphorus-rich deposits. The quality of rock phosphate is critical, as impurities can affect the efficiency of the manufacturing process. The rock phosphate is crushed into fine particles to facilitate chemical reactions.

2. Sulfuric Acid Reaction

The crushed rock phosphate is then mixed with sulfuric acid in a reactor. The chemical reaction between rock phosphate (mainly fluorapatite) and sulfuric acid is exothermic and releases heat. The chemical equation for this reaction can be represented as:

`Ca3(PO4)2 + 2 H2SO4 + 4 H2O → 2 Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O + 2 CaSO4·2H2O`

Calcium phosphate reacts with sulfuric acid to form phosphoric acid and calcium sulfate (gypsum) along with water. This plays an important role in single super phosphate manufacturing process. It is advisable to use a mixer with stainless steel lining.

3. Curing

The slurry from the reactor, which consists of phosphoric acid and gypsum, is transferred to a curing area where it is allowed to mature. The curing process is crucial as it helps in the completion of the chemical reaction and the solidification of the mixture.

4. Granulation

The densified material is passed through a SSP granulator, where it is shaped into uniform granules. The granulation process enhances the physical properties of the fertilizer, making it easier to handle, store, and apply to fields. Click here to learn more

Stainless steel pan granulator for small scale SSP fertilizer pellets making

Stainless steel pan granulator for small scale SSP fertilizer pellets making

5. Drying and Cooling

The granules are then dried in a rotary dryer to reduce the moisture content. Following drying, the granules are cooled to stabilize them and prevent caking.

6. Screening

After cooling, the granules are screened to separate the fine and oversized particles. The on-size granules are the desired product, whereas the fines and oversized particles are usually recycled back into the process.

7. Packaging

Finally, the SSP granules are weighed and packaged into bags or bulk containers for distribution to wholesalers or directly to farmers.

For these processes of SSP granule making, YUSHUNXIN can offer you suitable quality phosphate fertilizer production equipment.

The Benefits of SSP in Agriculture

SSP offers several advantages for agricultural applications:

– Nutrient Release: SSP provides a sustained release of phosphate, which is crucial for root development and the growth of various crops.
– Soil Conditioning: The gypsum content in SSP helps in conditioning the soil, improving its structure and reducing soil erosion.
-Cost-Effectiveness: SSP is more affordable than other phosphatic fertilizers, making it accessible to farmers in developing countries.


The production of Single Super Phosphate is a vital industry that supports global food security by enhancing crop production. Understanding the SSP manufacturing process allows us to appreciate the careful balance of chemistry, engineering, and environmental considerations involved in creating this essential agricultural input. As we continue to strive for sustainable farming practices, fertilizers like SSP will remain key players in achieving high yields while caring for our precious soil resources. If you want to start SSP fertilizer business, you can visit